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Solitaire Bibliography

Solitaire History and Bibliography – from a gambling perspective – compiled by Jeroen Dutch

This Solitaire Bibliography contains all the resources I used for my research on Solitaire in relation to gambling. All resources are sorted in chronological order in order to answer all relevant questions about the History of Solitaire from a gambling perspective.


1788

Das Neue Königliche L’Hombre

The rules of a Solitaire game known as “Das Patiencespiel” are included in this old German games book. It’s amusing to read that there was gambling involved since it is regarded by many as the first description of a Solitaire game.
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1798

Neuer Spiel-Almanach fürs Jahr 1798

Kleines Patience and Grosse Patience, same rules as “Das Patiencespiel”
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1842

Le Livre des Patiences

One of the most important books on Solitaire. Many writers used this book to translate games and incorporate them into their own work.
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1857

Gambling Exposed by Jonathan H Green

1857 Gambling Exposed A Full Exposition of all the various Arts Mysteries-and miseries of gambling

First-time Solitaire is specifically described as a gambling game played in Gambling Houses.
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1870

Patience Games for the FireSide

Book 1870 Patience Games for the fireside cover

The First English book on Solitaire was written by Ednah Dow Cheney.
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1874

Illustrated Games of Patience

1874 lady Cadogan Illustrated Games of Patience

The second English book on Solitaire written by the English noblewoman Lady Cadogan became a runaway success.
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1874

Games at Cards for One Player

An article on Solitaire by W. Pole published in the November edition of Macmillan’s Magazine
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1875

Solitary Games

An article on Solitaire published in The Spectator, Volume 48 (January 1875)
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1878

The Season in Saratoga

Article in The New York Times about gambling in Saratoga. Solitaire is mentioned being played in John Morrissey’s Gambling House.
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1883

Dick’s Games of Patience

Book cover of Dicks games of Patience 1883

Book on Solitaire with 64 different games written by William B. Dick in 1883
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1883

A Martyr to Solitaire

An article published in the New York Times with a reference to gambling with Solitaire.
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1888

Games of Patience for One or More Players

Book Games of Patience for One or More Players 1888

Games of Patience for one or more players (1st series ) by Mary Whitmore (40 Solitaire games)
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1890

Patience Games

Patience Games 1890 Thomas de la Rue

46 Solitaire games are added in the book Patience Games by Cavendish (Thomas de la Rue)
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1890

Games of Patience for One or More Players

ames of Patience for One or More Players, 2nd series by Whitmore Jones

Games of Patience for one or more players (2nd series ) by Mary Whitmore (33 Solitaire games)
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1890

The Young Folk’s Cyclopaedia

The Young Folk’s Cyclopaedia of Games and Sports by John Denison Champlin (22 Solitaires)
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1891

The Cyclopaedia of Card and Table Games

The first time Solitaire games were featured in a book by Professor Hoffmann
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1892

German Patience Games

An article about the origins of Solitaire in The Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science and Art.
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1892

The Illustrated Book of Patience Games

Book cover of the illustrated book of patience games

Book on Solitaire with 63 Solitaires by Professor Hoffmann
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1892

Games of Patience for One or More Players

Games of Patience for one or more players (3rd series ) by Mary Whitmore. For the first time, Demon Patience is mentioned.
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1894

Patience, A Series of Games with Cards

Patience A Series of Games with Cards by Ednah Dow Cheney

Solitaire rules book by Ednah Dow Cheney with for the first time the rules of Triangle, the processor of Klondike Solitaire
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1897

Foster’s Complete Hoyle

R.F. Foster’s Encyclopedia of games includes six Solitaire games.
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1898

Dick’s Games of Patience (Second Series)

Dick’s Games of Patience (second series) by William B Dick – 1898

The second book on Solitaire by William B Dick includes 70 variants.
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1901

Games of Patience, Illustrated By Numerous Diagrams

Book Cover 1901 Games of Patience

The book was written by Tarbart aka Cavendish (Thomas de la Rue)
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1902

Gambling with Solitaire

Article in The Sun New York about gambling with Solitaire in Gambling Houses in Chicago
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1902

Solitaire Gambling

Same article in the News Journal, Mansfield, Ohio about gambling with Solitaire
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1902

Gambling House Solitaire is popular in Brooklyn

Newspaper article Gambling House Solitaire is popular in Brooklyn

Another article about Solitaire being played in Gambling Houses was published in The Brooklyn Daily Eagle New York.
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1905

Games of Patience, Illustrated By Numerous Diagrams

1905 Games of Patience, Illustrated By Numerous Diagrams

Second Edition of Games of Patience by Tarbart (Thomas de la Rue) with a description of Gambler’s Delight.
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1907

Hoyle’s Games

Book Cover 1907 Hoyles Games Autograph edition

In the Autograph Edition by the McClure Company, both Canfield (here Klondike) and Klondike ( here Seven Card Klondike) are referred to as gambling Solitaires
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1908

Dick’s Games of Patience

1908 Dicks Games of Patience Second Series

In the 1908 version of Dick’s games of Patience, (Seven Card) Klondike is suddenly Copyrighted by Dick & Fitzgerald as “Canfield”
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1909

Confessions of a Solitaire Friend

1909 Confessions of a Solitaire Friend

Article about Solitaire by Ezra Knox published in The Commercial Appeal
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1909

My Favourite Patiences

1909 The Strand Magazine

Article on Solitaire by W Dalton published in The Strand Magazine
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1909

Foster’s Complete Hoyle

1909 Foster’s Complete Hoyle

R.F. Foster’s 1909 edition of his Encyclopedia of games includes Klondike called Canfield when played for money
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1910

Solitaire and Patience

1910 Solitaire and Patience

Seventy Solitaire Games to test the Card Player’s Skill by George Hapgood
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1911

The Official Rules of Card Games

1911- The Official Rules of Card Games

One of the most authoritative books on card games includes Canfield and Klondike descriptions (The US Playing Card Company)
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1914

Foster’s Complete Hoyle

R.F. Foster’s 1914 edition of his Encyclopedia of games includes both Klondike and Canfield.
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1921

Auction for Two or Three

1921 Auction for Two or Three

Book on (Solitaire) Card games for 2 or more players by Milton C. Work
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1927

Fun with Cards, Solitaires, Tricks, and Fortunes

1927 Fun with Cards

In this book on Solitaire, 30 different game types
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1932

Former Gambler Proves Sucker hasn’t Chance

Article about Klondike Solitaire being played in Gambling Houses
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1934

You can’t win

1934 You cant win by frank emery newspaper article

According to Frank Emery, the game that was played in Canfield’s Casino was Seven Card Klondike, not Canfield!
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1938

Sucker’s Progress

Sucker’s Progress book cover

Book on gambling by Herbert Asbury who wrote a chapter about the confusion between Canfield and Klondike Solitaire
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1938

The Complete Book of Games

Book on Solitaire rules by Cement Wood and Gloria Goddard.
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1949

The Complete Book of Solitaire and Patience Games

The Complete Book of Solitaire and Patience Games – 1949

Masterwork on Solitaire by Albert H. Morehead and Geoffrey Mott-Smith
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1957

The Magnificent Rube

1957 The Magnificent Rube

A book about The life and gaudy times of Tex Rickard, who offered Solitaire in his Gambling House during the Gold Rush (Nome)
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1966

Morning Assignment

Article by Joe Aaron published in the Evansville Courier and Press. The first time I came across the term “Las Vegas Solitaire”
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1975

Hoyle’s Encyclopedia of Card Games

Hoyle’s Encyclopedia of Card Games

Book on Solitaire games by Walter B Gibson includes both Klondike and Canfield
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1975

Brighton Youth Teaches a Computer to Gamble

Newspaper picture of Harald D Lesser

Article about an English student who wrote a Las Vegas Solitaire computer program in the hope to win a Mathematics Competition
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1976

Fundamentals of Data Structures

1976 Fundamentals of Data Structures

Programming Lesson book by Ellis Horowitz with an instruction to encode a (gambling) Solitaire
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1979

The Creative Cheater’s Guide to Solitaire

1979 The Creative Cheater’s Guide to Solitaire

Bernie De Koven points out the difference between Klondike and Las Vegas Solitaire
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1982

Videogames aren’t in the Cards

1982 videogames aren't in the cards newspaper article

Author Dick Reynolds: Klondike” Solitaire relieves video game frustrations… The card game is also played in Las Vegas
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1983

Pascal Solitaire

Article on Las Vegas Solitaire in the book of Atari Software by Alan Floeter
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1989

History and Humanities

1989 History and Humanities

University of Nevada Press about Klondike being played in Las Vegas by Francis X Hartigan
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1997

The New Games Treasury

1997 The New Games Treasury

Book on games by Merilyn Simonds Mohr including Klondike and Canfield
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2000

The Art of Gambling

Arthur Flowers and Anthony Curtis on gambling with Solitaire
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2001

Official Rules of Card Games

2001 Official Rules of Card Games

The United States Playing Card Company’s 90th edition includes Klondike and Las Vegas Solitaire
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2002

Gold Rush Fever

2002 Gold Rush Fever

In this Story of the Klondike (1898) Barbara Greenwood confirms the statement that Klondike Solitaire was played in Klondike during the Gold Rush
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2011

Some casinos offer a Solitaire version that uses Vegas Rules

Some casinos offer a Solitaire version that uses Vegas Rules

Questions and Answers with Mark Pilarski about Vegas Solitaire
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Bibliography: Richard Canfield’s Casino & Solitaire


Bibliography Las Vegas Solitaire